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Talented AWS developers available now
Pablo S. United Kingdom
6 years experience
- AWS EC2
- AWS ECR
- AWS Lambda
Fady W. United Arab Emirates
8 years experience
Michael K. Ghana
5 years experience
Allan V. Costa Rica
15 years experience
Marcelo D. Brazil
20 years experience
Hiring guide for AWS Developers in 2024
Amazon Web Services was first introduced in 2002, and in 2006, its first cloud services offering was introduced. AWS is a leading cloud computing platform offering various services, including computing power, storage, databases, networking, security, Internet of Things (IoT) applications, and more.
It enables businesses and individuals to run applications and store data in the cloud without the need for physical infrastructure. AWS is widely used for its scalability, flexibility, pay-as-you-go pricing model, and diverse set of tools, supporting various applications such as web hosting, data analytics, machine learning, and more, making it a popular choice for startups, enterprises, and developers alike.
AWS is a competitive skill because it is the leading global cloud computing platform, offering comprehensive services with a strong global presence. Professionals with AWS expertise are in demand due to the platform's scalability, reliability, security features, and organizations' increasing adoption of cloud technologies. The certification program, job opportunities, and continuous innovation further contribute to the prominence of AWS skills in the industry.
Must-have technical skills for AWS developers
AWS (Amazon Web Services) developers play a crucial role in designing, developing, and maintaining applications on the AWS platform. To be a proficient AWS developer, you need a combination of foundational and advanced technical skills. Here are some must-have technical skills for AWS developers, focusing on the most important and challenging aspects:
Core AWS services knowledge
- Understanding fundamental AWS services such as EC2, S3, RDS, Lambda, IAM, and VPC.
- In-depth knowledge of AWS infrastructure and how different services interact.
Infrastructure as a Code (IAAC)
Proficiency in using Infrastructure as Code tools like AWS CloudFormation or Terraform to automate the provisioning and management of AWS resources.
AWS CLI and SDKs
Ability to work with the AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) and Software Development Kits (SDKs) in various programming languages to interact with AWS services programmatically.
Experience with serverless computing using AWS Lambda for building scalable and cost-effective applications without managing servers.
Containers and container orchestration
Proficient understanding of AWS networking concepts, including VPC design, subnetting, security groups, and routing.
Security best practices
Understanding AWS security best practices, including identity and access management (IAM), encryption, and implementing secure communication protocols.
Monitoring and logging
Familiarity with AWS CloudWatch for monitoring and logging and setting up alerts and dashboards for tracking application performance.
Continuous integration/Continuous deployment (CI/CD)
Experience with CI/CD pipelines using AWS CodePipeline, AWS CodeBuild, and integration with version control systems like Git.
Load balancing and auto-scaling
Understanding of AWS Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) and Auto Scaling to ensure high availability and efficient resource utilization.
Migration and hybrid deployments
Knowledge of strategies for migrating on-premises applications to AWS and managing hybrid deployments.
Familiarity with DevOps practices, collaboration tools, and the ability to work in an agile development environment.
Skill in optimizing costs by selecting the right instance types, monitoring usage, and implementing cost management best practices.
Nice-to-have technical skills
- Advanced networking skills: A more in-depth knowledge of networking concepts in AWS. Explore topics such as Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) peering, Transit Gateway, VPC Flow Logs, and Direct Connect for more complex networking setups.
- Security best practices: A strong understanding of AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), AWS Key Management Service (KMS), AWS WAF AWS Guard Duty and Security Hub, and other security features. Learn how to implement encryption, secure access, and follow AWS security best practices.
- Advanced database services: Expanded database skills beyond basic RDS (Relational Database Service) knowledge. Explore Amazon DynamoDB for NoSQL databases and Amazon Redshift for data warehousing, and understand how to optimize database performance and scalability.
- AWS well-architected framework: Comprehend and apply the principles of the AWS Well-Architected Framework. This includes understanding the pillars of security, reliability, performance efficiency, cost optimization, and operational excellence.
- Advanced troubleshooting skills: Develop the ability to identify and resolve complex issues in AWS environments. This involves using tools like AWS Config, AWS Trusted Advisor, and AWS Health and understanding how to troubleshoot performance bottlenecks.
- Git: Proficiency in using Git for source code version control.
- Additional technologies: Depending on the specific use cases, AWS developers might need expertise in specialized areas such as machine learning (Amazon SageMaker), big data (Amazon EMR), or Internet of Things (IoT) services.
- Soft skills: Problem-solving and Troubleshooting – a developed ability to diagnose and solve issues efficiently; communication, which is crucial when working in a team or with other stakeholders.
Interview questions and expected answers
Up to five years of experience
1. Can you explain the difference between EC2 and Lambda?
Expected answer: EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) is a scalable virtual machine service, while Lambda is a serverless computing service. EC2 instances require manual scaling, while Lambda automatically scales based on the number of incoming requests.
2. What is the significance of Amazon VPC (Virtual Private Cloud)?
Expected answer: Amazon VPC allows users to provision a logically isolated section of the AWS Cloud. It enables the creation of a virtual network with customizable IP address ranges, subnets, and route tables, providing control over the virtual networking environment.
3. How does AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) work?
Expected answer: IAM is a web service for securely controlling access to AWS resources. It enables the creation and management of AWS users, groups, and roles, along with attaching policies to control their permissions.
4. Explain the differences between Amazon RDS and DynamoDB.
Expected answer: Amazon RDS is a managed relational database service, while DynamoDB is a managed NoSQL database service. RDS supports various database engines like MySQL, PostgreSQL, etc., while DynamoDB is a fully managed key-value and document database.
5. How can you secure data at rest in Amazon S3?
Expected answer: Data at rest in Amazon S3 can be secured using server-side encryption (SSE). This involves using either SSE-S3 (S3-managed keys), SSE-KMS (AWS Key Management Service), or SSE-C (customer-provided keys).
6. Describe the auto-scaling features in AWS.
Expected answer: Auto Scaling in AWS automatically adjusts the number of EC2 instances in a group based on predefined conditions. It helps maintain application availability and allows scaling based on factors like CPU utilization, network traffic, or custom metrics.
7. What is AWS CloudFormation, and how does it work?
Expected answer: AWS CloudFormation is an infrastructure as code (IaC) service that allows the creation and provisioning of AWS resources using templates. These templates describe the architecture and resources needed, and CloudFormation automatically handles the deployment.
8. How do you handle security in AWS, especially in a multi-account environment?
Expected answer: Security in AWS involves using IAM for access control, VPC for network isolation, and services like AWS Key Management Service (KMS) for encryption. In a multi-account environment, AWS Organizations can be used for centralized management of accounts and their security settings.
9. Explain the use of AWS Lambda Layers.
Expected answer: AWS Lambda Layers are a way to centrally manage code and data that is shared across multiple Lambda functions. Layers can contain libraries, custom runtimes, or other function dependencies.
10. How do you troubleshoot performance issues in an AWS environment?
Expected answer: Troubleshooting in AWS involves monitoring and analyzing various metrics using services like CloudWatch. Identifying bottlenecks, optimizing resource usage, and utilizing tools like AWS X-Ray for tracing can help diagnose and resolve performance issues.
11. How would you design a highly available and fault-tolerant architecture on AWS?
Expected answer: A robust architecture might include the use of multiple availability zones, load balancing, auto-scaling groups, and data redundancy across regions. Services like Amazon Route 53 for DNS and AWS Elastic Beanstalk for application deployment could be part of the solution.
12. Explain the differences between Amazon SNS and SQS, and when to use each service.
Expected answer: Amazon SNS (Simple Notification Service) is used for message publishing and delivery to multiple subscribers, while Amazon SQS (Simple Queue Service) is a message queuing service for decoupling components. SNS is suitable for fan-out scenarios, and SQS is ideal for maintaining message order and durability.
13. Describe your experience with containerization on AWS. How have you used services like Amazon ECS or EKS in your projects?
Expected answer: The candidate should talk about their experience with container orchestration, deployment strategies, and integration with other AWS services. Specific examples of containerized applications they've worked on would be beneficial.
14. Can you compare and contrast AWS Elastic Beanstalk and AWS OpsWorks? When would you choose one over the other?
Expected answer: The candidate should discuss the managed services provided by Elastic Beanstalk and the flexibility of OpsWorks. They should provide scenarios where one service is more suitable than the other based on the project's requirements.
15. How do you ensure data security in transit and at rest within an AWS environment?
Expected answer: The candidate should discuss the use of encryption for data at rest (e.g., SSE, KMS) and in transit (e.g., SSL/TLS). They should also mention the importance of securing communication between services and components.
Five years of experience and above
1. Explain the use cases for AWS Lambda and when you might choose it over traditional EC2 instances.
Expected answer: AWS Lambda is suitable for event-driven, short-duration tasks with sporadic execution. Use cases include data processing, real-time file processing, and automation. Lambda is chosen over EC2 for its serverless nature, automatic scaling, and cost efficiency for certain workloads.
2. How do you ensure data integrity in an S3 bucket, especially in a scenario with multiple write operations?
Expected answer: S3 provides strong data consistency. However, in a scenario with multiple write operations, versioning can be enabled in the S3 bucket. This allows tracking and retrieval of previous versions of objects, ensuring data integrity.
3. Describe a scenario where you would use AWS CloudFront and the benefits it provides.
Expected answer: AWS CloudFront is a content delivery network (CDN) service. It can be used to distribute content globally, reducing latency and improving load times. It's beneficial for delivering static and dynamic content, streaming media, and securing content using features like signed URLs.
4. How can you optimize costs in AWS, and what cost management tools are available?
Expected answer: Cost optimization involves right-sizing instances, using reserved instances, and leveraging spot instances. AWS provides tools like AWS Cost Explorer, AWS Budgets, and AWS Trusted Advisor to analyze and manage costs.
5. How would you implement data backup and disaster recovery strategies in AWS?
Expected answer: Strategies may include regular snapshots for Amazon EBS volumes, automated backups for RDS databases, and using services like AWS Backup. Disaster recovery could involve multi-region setups, with periodic testing of recovery processes.
6. Discuss the advantages of using AWS Elastic Beanstalk for application deployment.
Expected answer: AWS Elastic Beanstalk simplifies the deployment and management of applications by handling infrastructure provisioning, capacity scaling, and load balancing. It supports multiple programming languages and allows easy integration with other AWS services.
7. What is AWS CloudTrail, and how can it enhance security in your AWS environment?
Expected answer: AWS CloudTrail is a service that records API calls made on your account. It enhances security by providing a history of changes, aiding in compliance, and enabling the detection of unauthorized or suspicious activity.
8. Can you explain the use cases for AWS Step Functions and how they can improve application workflows?
Expected answer: AWS Step Functions enable the coordination of distributed components in microservices architectures. They are useful for building scalable and resilient applications by defining workflows with state machines, managing retries, and handling errors in complex processes.
9. Explain a challenging issue you faced in a previous AWS project and how you resolved it.
Expected answer: The candidate should discuss a real-world problem, the steps they took to troubleshoot, and the ultimate resolution. This question provides insight into their problem-solving skills and practical experience.
10. How do you implement high availability in an AWS environment, and what considerations do you take into account?
Expected answer: The candidate should discuss the use of multiple availability zones, load balancing, and data redundancy. They should also address considerations like regional distribution, failover mechanisms, and potential pitfalls.
11. Explain your approach to monitoring and logging in AWS. Which tools and services do you use, and how do you handle incident response?
Expected answer: The candidate should discuss the use of CloudWatch for monitoring, CloudTrail for logging, and possibly third-party tools. They should also outline their incident response process, including setting up alerts and handling incidents efficiently.
12. How do you manage configuration and infrastructure as code in AWS? Have you used tools like AWS CloudFormation or Terraform?
Expected answer: The candidate should talk about their experience with infrastructure as code (IaC), mentioning specific tools used, and the advantages of managing infrastructure through code. They should discuss version control, template management, and collaboration strategies.
13. Discuss a scenario where you optimized costs for an AWS project. What strategies did you employ, and what were the outcomes?
Expected answer: The candidate should share their experience with cost optimization, mentioning techniques like right-sizing instances, using reserved instances, and leveraging spot instances. They should also discuss the impact on the project's budget and performance.
14. Can you explain the concept of VPC peering, and when would you use it in a multi-VPC architecture?
Expected answer: The candidate should discuss the purpose of VPC peering, scenarios where it's useful (e.g., interconnecting VPCs in the same or different regions), and considerations for security and routing.
15. How do you ensure compliance and security best practices in AWS, especially in industries with strict regulatory requirements?
Expected answer: The candidate should discuss their experience implementing security controls, access management, and auditing mechanisms to ensure compliance. They should also be familiar with AWS services and features designed for regulatory compliance.
Industries and applications
AWS is a smart choice for building technology across various industries due to its robust and flexible cloud infrastructure, security measures, global reach, and various services catering to different business needs. Its pay-as-you-go pricing model also allows companies to optimize costs based on actual usage. Here are some industries and applications where AWS is commonly used, along with the reasons it's considered a smart choice for technology development:
Web and mobile applications
AWS offers a scalable and reliable infrastructure that allows businesses to deploy and scale web and mobile applications easily based on demand. Services like Amazon EC2, AWS Lambda, and Amazon S3 are commonly used for hosting, computing, and storage needs.
Retailers and eCommerce businesses benefit from AWS's scalable infrastructure to handle varying loads during peak times. Services like Amazon RDS, AWS Elastic Beanstalk, and AWS Lambda help manage databases, application deployment, and serverless computing.
AWS provides HIPAA-compliant services that suit healthcare applications. AWS offers secure storage (Amazon S3), database solutions (Amazon Aurora for HIPAA), and machine learning capabilities for healthcare analytics.
Financial institutions use AWS for its security features and compliance capabilities. AWS provides services like Amazon KMS for encryption, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), and compliance with industry standards, making it a secure choice for financial applications.
The gaming industry benefits from AWS's global reach and low-latency infrastructure. AWS offers services like Amazon GameLift for hosting multiplayer game servers and Amazon S3 for scalable storage of game assets.
Media and entertainment
AWS supports media processing, storage, and delivery services. Amazon Elastic Transcoder, AWS Elemental MediaConvert, and Amazon CloudFront are commonly used for video transcoding storage content delivery, and Amazon S3 for scalable storage of the media and entertainment industry.
Educational institutions leverage AWS to host online courses, manage student data, and conduct research. AWS Educate is a program designed to provide students and educators with resources and credits for learning and experimenting with AWS services.
IoT (Internet of Things)
AWS IoT services enable the connection, management, and analysis of IoT devices at scale. AWS IoT Core, AWS Greengrass, and AWS IoT Analytics are used for building and managing IoT applications.
Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence
AWS provides a range of services for machine learning and AI, such as Amazon SageMaker, AWS DeepLens, and AWS Rekognition. These services enable businesses to build, train, and deploy machine learning models at scale.
Startups and small businesses
AWS's pay-as-you-go pricing model allows startups and small businesses to access enterprise-level infrastructure without large upfront costs. The ease of scalability ensures that companies can grow their operations seamlessly.
AWS is a leading global cloud computing platform offering a set of services that enable businesses and individuals to run applications and store data with more scalability, reliability, and security features. Due to this, organizations are increasing the adoption of cloud technologies.
Due to its robust and flexible cloud infrastructure, AWS has become preferred among different sectors or industries, including Web and Mobile Applications, eCommerce, Healthcare, startups and small businesses, etc. An AWS developer (candidate) should be versatile, efficient, and well-prepared to handle various cloud development and deployment aspects, so the question should be more applicable. While interviewing, it is considerable that the relevance of specific skills may vary based on the project requirements and industry trends. Staying updated with the latest AWS services and features is crucial for any AWS developer.